Friday, July 3, 2015

In your academic work, there are times when you will need to summarize, take notes or make notes depending on the source that provides the information needed. This activity demands the disciplined use of your ears, eyes,hands and thinking capacity.

This is making a short statement (written or spoken) that gives the main points (information emphasis) about a text or speech without giving all the details.It is an activity involving a compact communication based on your understanding of the original ideas and which is presented in your own words (without presenting your own opinions) especially trying to keep the structure (or skeleton) of the original presentation intact. 

Simple guidelines about summary techniques include:
(1).After reading a section or a chapter try to pause and put what you have just read into your own words in brief.
(2). Do not present your own opinions but present the original ideas usingyour own language
(3).Go over the text again and check the correctness of your summary.
(4).If something important is missing then add it and if something you wrote seems to be wrong, correct it.
(5). Try to keep the structure or organization of the original presentation so that the ideas do not get mixed up.

Note Taking
If information is briefly recorded from a source of information such as from presentations in a meeting, an oral discussion, a lecture, a radio or a television broadcast that is called note taking. It is about you taking notes from another source- written source or spoken source. The source for note taking may be a book, journal, periodical, or a newspaper, a lecture or a radio presentation, meetings, seminars, et cetera. Note taking is an important skill for business employees as well as their managers because it is needed for summarizing information in a brief and yet clear format.

Some guidelines for note taking:
(1).Develop your own way of taking points quickly e.g.writing points using abbreviations and symbols you are comfortable with
(2). Be an active listener or reader
(3). Concentrate to make sure you benefit from the presentation or the text material.
(4).Do not write everything that is said or found in a text material but just pick the important points
(5).Leave enough space for expanding your notes (that is for note making) immediately after the presentation or after reading the relevant piece of writing

Note Making
This follows on from taking notes and happens when you review your notes and re-organize them in a way that makes sense to you leading to more obvious connections between the points. It is about making your own notes by expanding on the information or arranging information in the way suitable for your understanding, or perhaps integrating information from the notes you took from a lecture, from a friend's exercise book and from a book you read in order to get good notes for your own use. Some guidelines for note making include:
(1). Concentrate to make sure you benefit from your reading of the notes you took
(2). Make sure your notes are in your own words based on your understanding but without changing the original meaning of the text

The Importance Of Summarizing, Note Taking And Note Making
Note taking and note making have the following importance:
(1). They help people to develop skills of selecting important information from information which is not important
(2).They help people to remember and keep important information
(3).They help people to improve their study habits

All the English words, though thousands in number are categorized under eight types of words normally known as “parts of speech”. These eight types of words are classified according to the use or work that these words do in the sentences. For simplicity, I normally group these eight parts of speech into three (3) classes based on their relationships. However, do not take this grouping very seriously because it is just my personal approach.

The first group consists of Nouns, Pronouns and Adjectives. They centre on the nouns as their key leader. The second group consists of Verbs and Adverbs with the verbs as key leader. The last group consists of Conjunctions, Prepositions and Interjections with no key leader for they do not have a simple relationship among them.

Let us briefly discuss each of the eight parts of speech.

These are names of things, people, places, animals, et cetera. There are different kinds of nouns:
(a). Common – general names of creatures or objects such as lion, sword, soldier, shirt, et cetera.
(b). Proper –specific names of persons, places, et cetera such as Ali, Dar es Salaam, Africa. They are normally written beginning with capital letters.
(c). Collective – names that represent a collection or groups; that is, implying more than one thing such as team, crowd, bunch, et cetera.
(d). Abstract – names of some quality that cannot be seen or grasped such as pity, bravery, anger, et cetera
(d). Concrete –names of things that can be seen and grasped such as chair, car, house, et cetera
(e). Countable- names which refer to things which can be labeled as one, two, three, et cetera such as house, pen, children.
(f).Uncountable –names which cannot be labeled as one, two, three, et cetera such as water, sand, ink, sugar.

Singular and Plural
These nouns may come as one (singular) or many (plural). There are many ways how singulars change to plurals and this is not a simple thing to master. One has to take time learning how different names change from the singular to the plural( for example: lady-ladies, boy-boys, knife-knives, son-in-law, sons-in –law, penny-pence, child-children, foot-feet, sheep-sheep, deer-deer).Compound nouns ( which are formed by joining two nouns) also have singular and plural forms depending on the second word in the combination( for example: housewife-housewives, watchmaker-watchmakers, armchair-armchairs).

We can also look at the nouns from a gender perspective. Names which refer to males are called masculine (for example: father, king, cock) while names which refer to females are called feminine ( for example: mother, queen, hen). Names which can represent both males and females belong to common gender ( for example: teacher, cousin, baby, sheep) while names that do not refer to males or females form a neuter gender (for example: book, desk, house, football).

Nouns which show that something belongs to a certain name (possessive nouns) often use an apostrophe before an ‘s’ (for example: a king’s throne, a pupil’s book, a man’s shoe, children’s home, et cetera). For plural nouns which end naturally with an ‘s’ the apostrophe is placed in front of the “’s’ not before it (for example: kings’ thrones, pupils’ books)

Multiple Choice Questions On Nouns
Put a tick against the correct answer
(1). Here is……………….
    (a trouser, the trousers, a pair of trousers, a trousers)
(2). Diana has……………...
    (long hair, a long hair, long hairs, the long hairs)
(3). My class teacher’s table is made of………………….
    (a wood, woods, wood, the wood)
(4). On Sports’ Day the City Education Officer gave the pupils…………………
    (an advice, advices, a few advices, a piece of advice)  
(5). …………….have been made
    (The furnitures, Furniture, The pieces of furniture)
(6). A big …………………..of Egyptian soldiers fought a battle
    (group, crowd, army, audience)
(7). A woman who is about to be married is a…………………
    (spinster, bride, blue stocking, widow)
(8). ……………….is a very important to Egypt.
    (A Nile, The Nile, A part of Nile, Nile)
 (9)………………good news.
    (There are, Those are, This is, These are)
(10). Mr Juma has a big…………………of cattle on his farm.
    (herd, flock, pride, pack)

These are words which are used in place of a noun ( for example: ‘he’ for ‘Rashidi’) or a noun phrase(such as ‘he’ for ‘the  man’).Consider this sentence in which the nouns ‘Peter’ and ‘problem’ occur three times:
Though Peter tried to solve the problem, Peter could not do the problem and the teacher solved the problem for Peter.
Now read this revised sentence. The words in bracket represent pronouns:
Though Peter tried to solve the problem (he) could not do (it) and the teacher solved (it) for (him).

Demonstrative Pronouns
They are for showing something both in singular and plural. For example:
    (This) is my dog. (These) are my dogs. (That) is a pen.

Personal Pronouns
They represent people in singular and plural form. For example:
(I) am your teacher.(You) are my student. (You) are teaching (me). (They) will come to our class.

Possessive Pronouns
They show that something belongs to a person or another thing. For example:
This is my book. It is (mine).
That is his knife. It is (his).
These are our children. They are (ours).
That cat has a long tail. (Its) tail is black.

Multiple Choice Questions On Pronouns
Put a tick against the correct answer
(1)She is no friend of…………………….
    (mine, me, us, you)
(2). Let you and …………… friends.
    (I, myself, us, me)
(3). I rang…………….up this morning.
    (she, her, herself, me)
(4). He is your student because you are teaching……………….
    (he, himself, his, him)
(5). …………………..are in the same class.
    (Him and me, me and he, he and I, I and him)
(6). What is the name of …………………who came first?
    (he, him, hers, herself)
(7). They came to see………………….
    (I and she, I and her, me and her, me and she)
(8). ……………….gave a present to John
    (He and her, Him and she, He and she)
(9). Smith is polishing his shoes. He is polishing………………..
    (it, they, theirs, them)
(10). Mr. John and ……………came last night.
    (him, himself, he, me)

These are words which describe nouns. They give more information to the names so that we are clear about them as much as possible. So, a ‘crowd’ is more general in meaning than a ‘large crowd’. Examples of nouns with adjectives in bracket include: (tall) man, (good) student, (friendly) match, et cetera.
There are several kinds of Adjectives.

Proper Adjectives
Proper names can act as the basis for forming Proper Adjectives. For example:
Shakespeare: Hamlet is a (Shakespearean) play.
Paris: Charles is a (Parisian) painter.
Tanzania: Hamisi is (Tanzanian).
Russia: Pavlov is (Russian).
Zanzibar: Asha is (Zanzibari).

Possessive Adjectives
These are words which show that something or someone possesses a certain thing. For example:
(My) watch is new. (Our) watches are new.
That is (your) child. Those are (your) children.
This is (his) house. These are (their) houses.

Degrees of Comparing Adjectives
Adjectives can be compared in positive, comparative and superlative degrees. The positive degree is used when no comparison is made. The comparative degree is used when comparing two things. It is in comparing more than two things that we need to use a superlative degree of an adjective. For example:

Positive: tall, big, dear, expensive, good, much,
Comparative: taller, bigger, dearer, more expensive, better, more,       
Superlative: tallest, biggest, dearer, most expensive, best, most

Positive: Charles is tall
Comparative: Peter is taller than Charles
Superlative: William is the tallest of the three boys.

The Superlative takes ‘the’ hence ‘the tallest boy’, ‘the longest river’, ‘the most expensive car’, et cetera.

‘A’, ‘an’ and ‘the’ are little words that are often placed before a noun and in a way they act as adjectives because they modify the meaning of the noun. A and An mean ‘one’ and hence are used for singular nouns. If the sound of the singular noun begins with a vowel sound (a, e, i, o, u), An is used (an owl, an orange, an hour, et cetera).  If the sound is a consonant (b, k, d, et cetera), A is used ( a pen, a youth, a uniform, et cetera).

Because A and An are used to refer to general things, they are called “indefinite articles” because they do not refer to something specific between the speaker and the hearer. On the other hand, ‘the’ is called a ‘definite article” because it refers to things that are definite, clear and known to the people communicating. To master the use of ‘the’ you have to study more about its many rules and exceptions.
Examples with ‘the’:
(1). For definite things
    (The) man waiting at (the) bus stop is my uncle.
    (The) book we bought yesterday is here.

(2). For a whole class of things
    (The) cow is a useful animal.
(3). For certain geographical names and countries
    (The) Nile. (The) Indian Ocean. (The) Congo. (The) United States of America
(4). For plural meaning
    (The) rich should help. (The) poor have nothing to enjoy.
Zero Article
You have probably noticed that there are occassions when a noun or a noun phrase is not  preceded by any article. We refer to this as Zero Article (o ), meaning that there is no article used. Read the following examples to learn situations where you do not need to use an article before a noun:
(1). To talk about plural and uncountable nouns or when talking about things in general:
I'm terrified of heights
I'm into drum and bass.
I hate cheese.
(2). Before countries, towns, streets, languages and single mountains:
I'm from China
I've climbed Mount Everest.
She speaks French.
(3). Before some places and with some forms of transport:

I live at home with my parents.
I came here by car.
He goes to work by bus.
(4). In exclamations with what + uncountable noun:
What beautiful weather!
What loud music!
What disgusting food!

Multiple Choice Questions On Adjectives
Put a tick against the correct answer
(1). ……………pupils always act as they are told to do
    (careless, shy, obedient, unintelligent)
(2). Both exercises are difficult but the first is the ……………..of the two.
    (very difficult, difficult enough, more difficult, easy)
(3). Suzan chose the pastries which looked the……………………
    (salty, sweet, sweeter, sweetest)
(4). One shilling is the ……………..charge for this film.
    (little, a little, very little, least)
(5). There are two roads leading to the village, the lower road being the ………….one.
    (narrow, broadest, narrower, very broad)
(6). Travelling by road is……………than flying by air.
    (more cheaper, cheap, cheaper, the cheapest)
(7). I have done………… this term than the previous
    (neat, the neatest, most neat, neater)
(8). This house is…………… of the two.
    (the best, the worst, very good, the better)
(9). Pamela is……………reader in the class.
    (worse, the worse, the worst, bad)
(10). Kikwete’s………… is in business.
    (older, elder, oldest, more elder)

These are words which show physical or mental actions. In other words they are ‘doing’ words (ask, kick, pass, sing, run, read, et cetera).These action words are used to give information about past, present and future events.

Regular and Irregular Verbs
Sometimes verbs can be grouped into regular and irregular verbs.
Regular verbs are those verbs which show a systematic pattern (by adding –d, -ed or -ied) when forming a simple past tense. Examples of regular verbs with their simple past in bracket include: ask (asked), kick (kicked), pass (passed), report (reported), try (tried), bury (buried), build (built), et cetera.

Irregular verbs do not have a simple pattern when changed into simple past tense. They may not change their shape or sometimes look like they are different words. Examples of irregular verbs with their simple past in bracket are such as: go (went), put (put), shut (shut), lie (lay), bleed (bled), break (broke), meet (met), draw (drew), bring (brought), sing (sang), read (read), run (ran), et cetera.

Transitive And Intransitive Verbs
Transitive verbs are verbs which take an object; they cannot stand alone without an object for it. If you say ‘people keep” the hearer will ask ‘people keep what?’. There is a feeling that the verb ‘keep’ needs something to complete its meaning. So to make it complete you may wish to add an object and get something like ‘people keep animals’. You can easily find an object of the sentence by asking ‘who’ or ‘what’ about the verb. Examples of transitive verbs with suggested objects in bracket include: win (a prize), break(a window), cut down(a tree), see(an elephant), catch(a thief), kill(a man), et cetera.

Because transitive verbs carry objects they can be used in constructing passive voice statements. Examples of active sentences with their passive sentences in bracket are such as: People keep animals (Animals are kept by people), He killed a man (The man was killed by him), The boys won the prize (The prize was won by the boys), et cetera.

An intransitive verb does not take an object and therefore cannot be used to construct passive sentences. Some examples of intransitive verbs include: go, sleep, cry, shine, et cetera. These verbs are complete in meaning by themselves. Nobody will be surprised if you said ‘the baby cried’. The verb ‘cry’ does not need an object.

However, there are verbs which can be used both transitively and intransitively depending on the nature of the sentence-whether it can or cannot carry an object. Take for example a verb ‘open’. You may say ‘the door opened’ (intransitively) or ‘the teacher opened the door’ (transitively).

Main And Helping Verbs
In a verb phrase such as ‘I am going’ you have the word ‘going’ as the main verb and the word ‘am’ as a helping verb. The word ‘am’ is helping to complete the meaning of the verb ‘going’, whether we should take it in the past or present or future, et cetera. The ordinary (main) verbs are such as jump, kill, eat, swim. The list of helping (auxiliary) verbs includes these: be, have, do, can, may, must, shall, will, need, dare, used.

Multiple Questions On Verbs
Put a tick against the correct answer
1.An experienced surgeon will…………..the operation
     (make, construct, perform, produce)
2.The headmaster did not…………….me leave to stay absent from school.
    (permit, admit, favour, grant
3. We asked him to........... his doctor since he was ill.
(consult, advise, instruct, recommend)
4.The detectives from Scotland Yard arrived to............the crime.
(explore, seek, investigate, pursue)
5.The city magistrate will.............sentence on the accused tomorrow.
(say, tell, speak, pronounce)
6.Such an insult cannot anybody.
(bore, born, borne, bared)
7.This exercise book has...................on the floor for a week.
(laid, lain, lied, lay)
8.The poster was...................on the wall.
(stroke, struck, stricken, stuck)
9.Many the storm.
(fallen, felled, fell, filled)
10.The Assistant Minister for Education.......................the school in our village.
(founded, found, pounded, laid)

These are words which tell ‘how’, ‘where’ and ‘when’ an action is done. Some of the different kinds of adverbs are such as those of MANNER (fast, hard, carefully, brightly, cheerfully, faithfully, et cetera), PLACE (near, here, there, everywhere, anywhere, far, under, above, up, et cetera), TIME (to-day, yesterday, early, immediately, now, soon, still, then, et cetera) and FREQUENCY (often, repeatedly, seldom, never, twice, always, occasionally, sometimes,  et cetera).Examples of some sentences with adverbs in bracket include: I opened the door (immediately). Juma has (always) stood (first) (in the class).Ana did the questions (easily).Alice dances (well).The teacher left the room (hurriedly).

Multiple Choice Questions On Adverbs
Put a tick against the correct answer
1.The pupils protested…………….against their class monitor.
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
2.Carol answered every question………………
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
3.The patient sat……………… the armchair.
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
4.On receiving the message the doctor went to the hospital………………
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
5.The small pox spread…………… all parts of the city.
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
6.The wood carvers’ carvings were done……………………
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
7. Children should speak……………….to their elders.
(rudely, angrily, politely, loudly)
8.The naughty boy was punished……………….
(generously, kindly, humbly, severely)
9.John started school……………
(in 1998, to 1998, at 1998, on 1998)
10.Khamis went………………………
(at the station, on the station, to the station, the station).

These are words which show relationships between nouns, or pronouns and other words (such as verbs) in a sentence. Prepositions are normally placed before nouns and pronouns but they can also come at the end of the sentence. Mastering the use of prepositions requires some effort.

You should also note that many words used as prepositions can also be used as conjunctions and adverbs. Some of the prepositions in common use include the following: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, for, from, in, into, near, of, on, opposite, over, since, through, till, to, towards, under, until, up, upon, with, within, without. Examples of sentences with prepositions in bracket include: They succeeded (in) escaping.  I showed the map (to) Bill. I wash my hands (with) soap. (To) whom were you talking? Whom were you talking (to)?
Let us look at some types of prepositions.

Prepositions of Time and Date
These include: at, on, by, before, in. Examples of prepositions of time and date include the following: at six, at midnight, at 4.30, at the age of sixteen (or at sixteen), on Monday, on 4 August, On Christmas day, On Maulid, at night, at Christmas or at Easter (referring to the period of Christmas or Easter not the day only).

Prepositions Of Travel, Movement, Place And Direction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
These include: from, to, at, in, by, on, into, onto, off, out, out of. Examples: They flew (from) Paris to London. When are you coming back (to) Tanzania? They arrived (in) Spain. I arrived (at) the hotel. We got (off) a public vehicle. We went (via) Kariakoo. They went home (by) bus. There is a bridge (over) the river. They went (to) the market to buy some things.
Prepositions Used With Some Adjectives And Verbs
Some adjectives and verbs can be followed by certain prepositions and it is important to learn how they are used in a sentence. Look at this short list:
Interested in, anxious for or anxious about, confident of, capable of, bad at or bad for, fond of, good at or good for, suspicious of, tired of, used to, pleased with, accuse somebody of, apologize(to somebody) for, believe in, occur to, punish(somebody) for, hope for, consist of, beware of, persist in, insist on, laugh at, smile at, look for, look at, et cetera.

Multiple Choice Questions On Prepositions
Put a tick against the correct answer
1. Let us look………………….picture.
(in, at, on, of)
2. A fire broke……………….near here yesterday.
(into, down, out, up)
3.He was accused…………….robbery.
(with, of, in, for)
4.Pour this water…………the tank.
(in, into, on, to)
5.Tom fell as he was getting…………..his bicycle.
(on, up, in, for)
6.Mrs. Pinto was disappointed…………her daughter.
(with, in, at, about)
7.Why is that man staring………….us?
(at, on, to, after)
8. He is not interested…………….anything but cricket.
(at, with, on, in)
9.The match ended……………a victory for our school.
(for, at, to, in)
10.The teacher was angry…………..his pupils.
(at, with, on, to)

These are words which connect or join words or groups of words. Some of the most commonly used conjunctions include the following: and, but, so, either…or….., neither..…nor…..., before, after, when, because, until, unless, till, as, if, while. Examples of sentences with conjunctions in bracket are such as:
    Juma (and) Ali went to school.
    John is honest (but) poor.
    William and Steven arrived (before) Mary.
    (Neither) John (nor) Jane is present today.
    (Both) Diana (and) Cesilia are students of this college.
    This is the car (that) Jackson bought last month.
    The boy (who) works in the post office is my brother.

The types of conjunctions are as follows:

Coordinating Conjunctions
They are for joining pairs of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, phrases and clauses. They include: and, but, both………and, or, either…….or………,neither…..nor, not only……….but also, et cetera. Examples of sentences with coordinating conjunctions in bracket include: He is small (but) strong.  He can (neither) read (nor) write. Ring Tom (or) Bill. (Not only) men (but also) women were chosen.

Subordinating Conjunctions
They introduce subordinate clauses. They include: if, that, though, although, unless, when, et cetera. Examples of sentences with subordinating conjunctions in bracket are such as: He had no qualifications; (nevertheless) he got the job. He got the job (although) he had no qualifications. (Despite) the severe weather conditions all the cars completed the course. (As) I left the house I remembered the key.

Multiple Choice Questions on Conjunctions
Put a tick against the correct answer
1.He was very ill;…………………..we called in the doctor.
(and, but, so)
2.Sheila is clever……………….she is not friendly.
(so, because, but)
3. It is very late………….we can still catch the last train.
(but, so, and)
4.He is honest…………….he is stupid.
(so, because, although)
5.I am pleased with this book…………..the principal gave to me.
(who, whom, which)
6.Chinua Achebe………….novels are known all over Africa was born in Nigeria.
(which, whose, whom)
7. Tomorrow there will be neither snow……………rain.
(either, or, nor)
8. You can go there………………….by coach or by rail.
(neither, nor, either)
9. You will not succeed ………… do not work hard.
(unless, so, if)
10. In the evening…………..the sun is low, the birds return to their nests.
(so, when, unless)

 These are words used to express strong feelings or emotions to show attention, concern, joy, relief, surprise, et cetera. An interjection is always followed by an exclamation mark (!). Some of the interjections (exclamations) include: alas! Hi! Indeed! Oh! Hurrah! Hush! Hello!
There are several types of interjections.

Interjections Of Surprise And Joy
Oh dear! What are you doing now?
Hurrah! Our team has won the match.
Ha! They have passed their O-level examinations.

Interjections Of Pity And Concern
Alas! Martha is dead.
Hark! The inspector is coming to arrest us.
Hush! Don’t make a noise.

Interjections of Attention And Love
Hello! When did you come?
Hi! You are warmly welcome.

Questions On Interjections
Pick out the interjections and say what feeling is expressed by each
1.Good gracious! I shall be late for school.
2.Hurrah! Our team has won.
3. Oh dear! My pet is badly hurt.
4. Hush! You will wake the patient.
5. Bravo! You have all done well in your examination.
6. At last! The work is over.

Sentences are groups of words having complete meanings. That means one sentence (written or spoken) must make a complete sense.

Sentences are generally classified according to their structure (how they are made,built or constructed) or their purpose (their usage or what function they perform). In this course we will focus on the classification of the sentence based on its function or usage aspect.

So, based on the function, a sentence expresses a fact or an opinion, a question, a command or a request, an exclamation or a desire for something.  When written, a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!)

Look at these sentences and ask yourself which function they are performing:
    (You) Come.
    (You) Call the doctor.
    I am a student.
    I went to Kariakoo yesterday.
    Where are you going?
    Are you a footballer?
    How pretty she looks!
    What a fine day it is!

Very briefly, the following are types of sentences according to their function or usage.

(i). Declarative/ Assertive Sentence: It is a sentence which simply affirms or denies something. In other words, it is a straight statement.
e.g. Juma has taken tea.
      Juma has not taken tea.

(ii). Interrogative Sentence: It is a sentence which inquires about something. It asks a question.
e.g. How old are you?
      Will you buy that knife?

(iii). Imperative Sentence: It is a sentence which contains some command or prohibition or request or advice.
e.g. Polish my shoes (command)
      Do not read so fast (prohibition)
      Please, help me (request)

(iv). Exclamatory Sentence: It is a sentence which expresses some feeling of the mind.
e.g. Hurrah! My father has come.
       Alas! I am undone.
      What a beautiful bird it is!

(v). Optative Sentence: It is a sentence that expresses some wish, hope or desire.
e.g. May God bless you with a son.
      Would that I were a King!
      Long live the President!
      May you have a long and happy life together.
     May God have mercy on them.

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