Friday, July 3, 2015

Habari zenu wanafunzi wangu wa Pre-Course!
Kutokana na maelezo ya mchapaji wetu wa kitabu (Plan B Solutions) kama ambavyo nimekuwa nikiwaeleza darasani, pesa nilizochukua kwenu (Evening Class, Batch A,2&3) hazikutosha kugharamia uchapaji wa kitabu kama tulivyotegemea kwa sababu ya uchache wa pesa yenyewe baada ya kumuomba atupunguzie bei kutoka elfu 10 mpaka elfu 5. Pesa yetu imeshindwa kununua hata "bulk rim" moja ya karatasi za kuchapa kitabu. Kwa kawaida huwa wanachapa kitabu kuanzia nakala 1000 lakini sisi tumetoa pesa watu 116 tu ndo maana alitaka kutuunganisha na wateja wengine ambao kwa sasa hawajawa tayari.Ukubwa wa mzigo wa  mteja mwingine ndio ungenunua hizo karatasi kisha sisi pesa yetu ingegharamia uchapaji na wino tu.Kwa bahati mbaya ndani ya muda huu tunaohitaji kitabu hajapata mteja wa kutubeba.

Niwaombe sana muwe wavumilivu ili pesa hiyo tuiweke akiba kwa ajili ya kitabu cha kozi yenyewe ya Certificate badala ya pre-course kusudi tuendelee kumsubiri mchapaji (printer) apate mtu mwingine wa kutuunganisha ili tubebwe kigharama na watu wengine wanaochapa vitabu vingi.

Kwa sasa nawaomba mjiandae na mtihani kwa kusoma notisi hizi hapa chini na wiki ya tar. 5-10 nitakuja darasani tufanye mazoezi ya kujiandaa na mitihani. Batch A kwa vile siwafundishi someni hizi notisi hapa na kumsikiliza mwalimu Mubarack.Kama kutakuwa na tatizo au hoja tutaongea darasani!

*Notisi zinasomwa kwa ku- "scroll" chini kwenye ukurasa wako wa mtandao.Kama huoni baadhi ya notisi moja kwa moja bofya kwenye "older posts" au "previous posts" au kitu kama hicho kutegemea na "screen" ya kompyuta au simu "smart" uliyonayo!

Nawatakia mafanikio!!!


Passing examinations is something that every student wants, and yet it is only a few students who consistently score good marks.  There may be many reasons for failure or success in exams but definitely the two broad reasons include student's level of preparation and student's exam behavior.

So, first of all, honestly check your reading and study habits.  You will have confidence attending your exam knowing you prepared well.  Nothing can substitute for serious studying.  Being a lazy student and expecting good marks out of your exams is a contradiction.  Secondly, make sure you know how to behave appropriately in the examination room.  Some students fail their exams even if they prepared well, just because they do wrong things during their exams and end up with poor marks.  So you need to be careful even when you feel you are well prepared.

Most students get terrified by the idea of doing an examination. Sadly, even the intelligent students sometimes perform badly because of experiencing what is sometimes referred to as ‘exam fever’, ‘exam phobia’ or 'examination tremor'.  The symptoms of this examination fear include stomach upset, lack of appetite, headaches, sweating, blurred vision et cetera.  But you don’t have to fear exams if you learn and practice helpful ideas on test and exam passing.

The following ideas can be very helpful in changing your examination results:

(a).Avoid engaging yourself in things that may disturb your mind on the exam day eg. Arguing, quarreling, receiving or making calls to people who may disturb you.

(b).Don’t jump into your exam as soon as you receive your paper. You need to calm down first.  You can breathe deeply or whisper a little prayer.  Then read the paper quickly to get the geography of you exam, that is, the general idea of how the exam is set.  Give yourself at least five minutes before attempting any question.

(c).Plan your time appropriately.  Many student fail their exams due to poor timing.  Consider it foolish and irresponsible going into an exam without a watch.  Understand how much time you have for the exam and quickly budget your time between the difficult and the simple questions, between the short answer questions and the long answer or essay questions.  Sometimes you need to divide your time depending on the marks given to the questions.  It would be ridiculous to spend much time or questions allotted fewer marks.

(d).Read the general instructions for the exam as well as the specific instruction for each question carefully.  Understanding the question without following the instructions given for that question is a source of failure for many students.  Be careful and be sure of what you are asked to do.

(e).Make sure plan or outline of how your answer will look like (for essay questions).  Show the key words or important concepts in the question to be sure you are doing what you have been asked to do.  Think of what you will include in your introduction and conclusion.

(f).Answer the question quickly and with enthusiasm.  While writing keep going back to the question so you do not loose track.

(g).If you are puzzled about something or you feel like you are running short of points, you better skip or postpone that question and do another question instead of wasting too much time thinking on any particular question.  Return to the question after finishing the ones you know better.

(h).Review or re-read your answers before submitting.  Leave at least five minutes for checking words you have left out inadvertently, minor errors you have made and mistakes you have made in grammar.


Write a definition for each of the following communication terminologies
(a) Communication
(b) Channel
(c) Sender
(d) Receiver
(e) Feedback
(f)    Message
(g)    Goal
(h)    Feedback

Give the meaning for the following terms
(iii). Knowledge

Answer these  questions
(i). Briefly mention and explain at least seven sources of information you know
(iii). What is the most important information you need when you want to get a book in the library shelf? And  why do you think it is the most important information?
(ii).Write a short dialogue of how you would introduce your friend Jamila to your teacher Mr. Mtama
(iii). Write the following numbers in words: 200,001; 10,110; 33,333,333

Choose the best option and write the correct sentence in your answer book.
i) I ……….. sweep my room everyday
(a) have to (b) can (c) may

ii) We ……… play football on the college field college if we went.
(a) Must (b) Can (c) have to

iii) My mother told me to be home by 9 O’clock. I……… go now.
(a) can (b) may (c) must

iv) The dog ……. come into the house.
(a) don’t have to (b) doesn’t have to (c) mustn’t

v) You don’t ……eat a lot of sweets
(a) can’t to (b) have to (c) shouldn’t
Insert a, an, or the where necessary.
…………..geometry set contains……ruler,…….. pair of compasses,………… protractor and ……..pair of dividers.
i) His father was…….lawyer and earned £ 3000…..year.
ii) Okigbo…… Nigerian poet, wrote very difficult poems.
iii) …….airport is a very busy place where……aeroplanes land and take off constantly………. Jomo Kenyata International Airport is such a place.
iv) In …….. opinion of …….. Captain Wills, …….shortest way to Japan would be through……. Panama Canal.

Rewrite each of the following sentences replacing the underlined words with a pronoun.
i) Brenda spoke to Benedict and made Benedict laugh.
ii) Beatrice bought a mango and gave the mango to her sister.
iii) I shouted at my sister but my sister did not respond.
iv) Njeri has a friend, the friend goes to school in Manyara.
v) Pinda advised the members of parliament but they never needed Pinda’s advice.

Change the following sentences in singular by making all the necessary changes.
i) Leaves have green colour
ii) The girls are cutting oranges with knives.
iii) Do they take medicine regularly?
iv) These questions are too difficult for us to answer.
v) Dogs bark when they are angry or excited.

Use one of the following verbs to complete the sentence in the simple present tense.
Play, increase, leave, write, arrive, care, work, drive, stay, eat, make, change, teach, sell, fly, come.
i) Trains……… here at 16.00hrs, they ……… in Mwanza at 7hrs.
ii) Mohamed Mwameja ……. for Simba sports club.
iii) A nurse ……… for sick people
iv) These are teachers.  They ….. in schools.
v) James is a bus driver.  He ……a bus.
vi) A secretary …… letters.
vii) Carpenters…… furniture
viii) A postal worker…….. stamps.
ix) A pilot …….. an airplane
x) Thabo Mbeki ….. from South Africa.
xi) A teacher …… students.
xii) They haven’t got anywhere to live.  They …..with friends until they find somewhere.
xiii) The population of the world…….  very fast
xiv) The cost of living ……. Every year things are getting more expensive.

Change the following sentences into the plural form by making any necessary change.
i) A cat is chasing a mouse
ii) It is a good formula
iii) A thief carries a knife
iv) He has a syllabus
v) That lady works in an industry.

Point out the nouns in the following sentences and say whether they are common, proper, collective or abstract:
(i) The crowd was very big
(ii) Wisdom is better than strength
(iii) We saw a fleet of ships in the harbour
(iv) The class is studying grammar
(v) The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery
(vi) Lushoto is an old district
(vii) Kasumo is a good Christian Secondary School
(viii) I studied Chemistry last night
(ix) Can I speak to the former Manager
(x) The long road is completed

Change the following nouns into plural forms.
(i) Thief, Wife Calf, Knife, Wolf.
(ii) Life, Loaf, Half, Shelf, Self.
(iii) Dwarf, Scarf, Hoof, Cliff, Proof.
(iv) Foot, Louse, Mouse, Goose, Man
(v) Piano, Tomato, Kilo, Sterio, Banana

Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct item of the four choices given.
(i) They ………. Ugali last week.
(a) ate (b) eat (c) eaten (d) eating               
(ii) The footballer ………. The ball everyday
(a) kick (b) kicking (c) kicks (d) kicked               
(iii) They spoke …….. English and Kiswahili
(a) both (b) all (c) two (d) either                   
(iv) The woman with ……… I share my husband died yesterday
(a) whose (b) whom (c) who (d) which               
(v) People ……….. Kibakwe are very rich
(a) in (b) on (c) at (d) of                   

Study the following nouns carefully, then state the noun classes in which those words are found
(i). kindness, beauty, truth, freedom, goodness
(ii).girl, city, elephant, radio, church
(iii).mob, staff, crew, flock, gang
(iv).Lilian, Japan, Brenda, Lindi

 Write the correct form of pronouns in the following sentences
(i).Whom can I trust, if not………………….(she, her)
(ii).My brother is taller than………………(me, I)
(iii). It is a secret between you and ……………..(him, he)
(iv). We scored as many goals as………………..(they, them)
(v). Let you and …………..try what we can do(I, me)

The following sentences are incomplete; complete them by underlining the correct preposition in the brackets
(i).He accused the man (for, on, of, in) stealing.
(ii).The girl is afraid (on, from, for, of) the dog.
(iii).Christians believe (on, in, to, into) Jesus.
(iv).Will you pass (at, in, by, from) the police post?
(v).dogs bark (of,into, in, up) the evening.

Put a, an or the where necessary
Jane bought…………..dress for her sister in law……………….dress was so nice. The following day, she went to Kariakoo market and he bought …………….apple, two kilos of sugar, …………..gallon of cooking oil,………………. bunch of bananas.

Think of a suitable single word that can stand for the following whole group of words
(i). A number of ships travelling together under escort for the sake of safety
(a).convoy (b).fleet
(ii).An instrument used for measuring minute distances
(a).micrometer (b).stethoscope
(iii).A murder of a new-born child
(a).infanticide (b).abortion
(iv). To be able to tell the nature of a disease by its symptoms
(a). x-ray (b).diagnose
(v).A disease affecting many people at the same place and time
(a) AIDS (b) epidemic

Punctuate the following
(i). oops I did it again
(ii).who sang that song
(iii).it was supposed to be done by yusuf mboni
(iv). It was your responsibility to take some notes the teacher blamed
(v). come here

Sometimes we need to go back to the basics and see whether the foundations are strong. That is crucial for developing future communication skills.

Talking About The English Alphabet
The English alphabet system has 26 letters which are needed to write all the English words. The following are the English letters with their names in bracket.
Aa (ei), Bb(bii), Cc(sii), Dd(dii), Ee(ii), Ff(ef), Gg(jii), Hh(eich),Ii(ai), Jj(jei), Kk(kei), Ll(el), Mm(em), Nn(en), Oo(ou),Pp(pii),Qq(kyuu),Rr(ar), Ss(es), Tt(tii), Uu(yuu), Vv(vii), Ww(dablyuu), Xx(eks),Yy(wai), Zz(zed).

Their corresponding sounds are such as:
A[a],  B[b],   C[k],   D[d],  E[e],  F[f],  G[g],  H[h],  I[i],  J[j],  K[k],
L[l],   M[m],  N[n],  O[o],  P[p],  Q[k],  R[r],  S[s],   T[t],  U[a],
V[v],   W[w], X[ks], Z[z].

(This is for the name: Robert)
A: Can you spell your name?
B: Oh Yes!It is R.O.B.E.R.T. [ar  ou  bii  ii  ar  tii]
A: Can you say your name?
B: Yes it is [robat]

Talking About Cardinal Numbers
Cardinal numbers are numbers which show quantities of things. In my opinion I consider the most important cardinal numbers for an English learner to be 1-20. The rest are easy to learn.

We count cardinal numbers like this:
1=One, 2=two, 3=three, 4=four, 5=five, 6=six, 7=seven, 8=eight, 9=nine, 10=ten

11=Eleven, 12=twelve, 13=thirteen, 14=fourteen, 15=fifteen, 16=sixteen, 17=seventeen, 18=eighteen, 19=nineteen, 20=twenty

Counting tens from 10-100
10=ten; 20=twenty; 30=thirty; 40=forty; 50=fifty; 60=sixty; 70=seventy; 80=eighty; 90=ninty; 100=one hundred

Counting hundreds from 100-1000
100=one hundred; 200=two hundred; 300=three hundred; 400=four hundred; 500=five hundred; 600=six hundred; 700=seven hundred; 800=eight hundred; 900=nine hundred; 1,000=one thousand

Counting thousands from 1,000-10,000
1,000=one thousand; 2,000=two thousand; 3,000=three thousand; 4,000=four thousand; 5,000=five thousand; 6,000=six thousand; 7,000=seven thousand; 8,000=eight thousand; 9,000=nine thousand; 10,000=ten thousand

Other Ordinal numbers:
100,000 =one hundred thousand; 1000, 000= one million (a million)
1,000,000,000 = one billion ( a billion); 1,000,000,000,000 = one trillion ( a trillion)

Sentence examples:
Our football team has twenty players.
There are one hundred people in that village.
Last year, they cut down  a million trees.
Ten million people were killed in an earthquake.
Tens of, hundreds of, millions of, trillions of:
Tens of people have died of hunger this year.
He has hundreds of books.
That house will cost thousands of dollars.
Trillions of money have been stolen from the bank recently.

Talking About Ordinal Numbers
Ordinal numbers are numbers which show the position of something in a series; that is, they show order. Again, I consider the first twenty ordinal numbers to be very important for the learner.
1st= first; 2nd= second; 3rd= third; 4th =fourth; 5th=fifth; 6th=sixth; 7th=seventh; 8th=eighth; 9th=ninth; 10th=tenth; 11th=eleventh;12th=twelfth; 13th= thirteenth; 14th=fourteenth; 15th=fifteenth; 16th=sixteenth; 17th=seventeenth; 18th=eighteenth; 19th=nineteenth;20th=twentieth

Other Ordinal numbers:
30th = thirtieth; 40th =fortieth; 50th =fiftieth; 60th =sixtieth; 70th =seventieth;
80th =eightieth; 90th=ninetieth; 100th =one hundredth (a hundredth)
200th =two hundredth; 300th =three hundredth
1000th = one thousandth; 900th =nine hundredth
101st = one hundred first; 207th =two hundred seventh
Sentence examples:
She became first in her class.
This is our fiftieth independence anniversary.
I was a hundred and second student in the whole country to win that prize.

Talking About Mathematical Operations
Some common mathematical operations may go like this:
One plus two equals three Or  One plus two is three
Ten minus four equals six Or Ten minus four is six
Five times six equals thirty Or Five times six is thirty
Forty divide by four equals ten Or Forty divide by four is ten

Talking About Frequencies
Sometimes we talk about how many times something can be repeated.
Once (one time), twice(two times), thrice(three times), four times, five times, ten times, etc.
A: How many times have you eaten today?
B: I have eaten thrice
A: How many times will you visit Tanga?
B: I will visit Tanga twice this year.
A: How many times did she give birth?
B: She gave birth seven times.

In speech people change their pitch, volume, stress, pause in between sentences, et cetera,  to create certain impact and clarify their meaning. In writing, we use various symbols that are commonly known as punctuation marks to make reading easier and meaningful. They include full stops, commas, colons, semi-colons, inverted commas, parentheses, dashes, hyphen, question marks, apostrophes,exclamation marks, capitalizations, et cetera. These marks indicate different actions that readers should note so they can follow and understand the information smoothly.

However, the use of these marks is not as straightforward as one would expect. Many times we need to depend on common sense and experience that are gained through much reading and practice. Use the punctuation marks in places where they are needed most and avoid them in places where they are least important.

Here we present just a few punctuation marks with their few basic functions commonly used in writing and reading. Read these examples carefully and find other material to expand your knowledge on these and the other punctuation marks not included here.

The Full Stop (.)
(1).It is used at the end of a complete sentence
e.g. I am studying in one of the best colleges in the country.
       Communication Skills is a new subject to us.

(2).It is used in abbreviations
e.g. U.N.H.C.R.

The Upper Case (Capital Letter)
(1).It is used for the first letter in every sentence as well as the first letter in all proper nouns.
e.g. Musa and Jasmin are relatives.
       That house was built by my son.

(2).It is also used in abbreviations
   CCM and CHADEMA are two  strong rival political parties in Tanzania.
   They are being supported by the I.L.O. Office in Dar es Salaam.

The Question Mark (?)
(1).It is used at the end of direct questions
e.g. What is your name?
       Where is the Post Office?

(2).It is also used at the end of requests
e.g. May I see you for a moment please?
      Will you allow me to clean this mess please?

The Comma (,)
(1).It is used for items in a series of three or more words, phrases or clauses that appear together and have the same function in a sentence.
e.g. Are those products imported from France, Spain or Italy?
      Milk, fruit juices, soft drinks, etc., are packaged in plastic containers.

(2).It is also used to questions added to statements
e.g. The announcement surprised everyone, didn't it?
      It was Mr. Kabwe, wasn't it, who proposed those changes?

As pointed out above, there are many punctuation marks and we cannot discuss them all and in detail here in this small book. Please, get other books and expand your knowledge on the correct use of those punctuation marks.


Sometimes we need to talk about things that are done every time, every day, every week, et cetera. To say something that reflects daily routines and timetables you can learn some things from the following passages. These passages illustrate the use of simple present tense which is used to talk about repetitive schedules.

Passage 1
Our parents are very kind to us. They regularly TRY to advise us whenever we MAKE mistakes. They always FEEL quite happy when a day PASSES without making them angry. They TELL us it is a must to be polite to everybody.

My sister PREFERS to prepare food for our family. She is very proud of her job. She DOES not leave the kitchen before completing her duty.

My brother GOES to hunt or fish. He RETURNS home with meat. He FEELS quite unhappy if he FAILS to kill an animal or FAILS to catch a fish.

Passage 2
I usually WAKE up in the morning as soon as it GETS light, at about six o’clock. But I DO not GET up straight away. I usually LIE quietly in bed until the rising bell RINGS, so I HAVE half an hour to think about the day ahead. After the rising bell GOES, I am busy washing, making my bed, and doing my share of the cleaning until the breakfast bell GOES at seven o’clock. Classes BEGIN an hour after the breakfast bell, and they GO on until 12.30 p.m. Then another bell RINGS for the end of morning classes, and we GO to get ready for lunch.

Afternoon classes BEGIN at 2.00 p.m. and GO on until 4.15 p.m. We then HAVE a break for tea until five o’clock. After the tea-break, we BEGIN various outside activities such as games, or working on the school farm, or helping with the poultry and cattle. An hour and a half is allowed for this, and then we HAVE half an hour to get washed and changed for supper at 7.00 p.m. After supper we HAVE supervised preparation from 8.00 p.m. until 10.00 p.m., and then we HAVE half an hour to get to bed before lights OUT.

Passage 3
Paul is a student in a boarding secondary school. The school is situated in Mwanza city not far away from the city centre. He WAKES up at six o’clock, TAKES his breakfast at seven and GOES to class at half past seven. During the evening he GOES to read books in the school library. On Saturdays there are no classes, so Paul GOES to a church nearby to worship his God. On Sunday evenings he GOES to visit his parents and DOES his shopping.

Musa also LIVES in the same city as Paul. He DOES not attend school in a boarding school. Instead, he GOES to a day school that is just a few minutes’ walk from his home. He GETS up early in the morning. He PREPARES himself for school and LEAVES home for school at quarter past seven. He always GOES to class at half past seven. In the evening Musa DOES not go to the library; instead he GOES to the workshop where he STUDIES and PRACTISES mechanical engineering. He INTENDS to work in a garage after finishing his school.

Paul and Musa sometimes MEET at the bus stop when Paul is going to visit his parents and Musa to the workshop. They usually GREET each other and TALK about the week and especially their studies. At the beginning their meetings were just by chance, but now every one of them LOOKS forward to their meeting every week.

These are the different ways (forms) of a verb used to show the time of the action whether it is done in the past, present or future. There are simply three major tenses (PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE) with four minor tenses (SIMPLE, CONTINUOUS, PERFECT & PERFECT CONTINUOUS) in each major tense. In other words we have can present the tenses as follows:
Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect continuous    

Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous             

Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect continuous

What the above presentation means is that the tenses are called:
(1).    Present Simple (Tense), Present Continuous (Tense), Present Perfect (Tense) and Present Perfect Continuous (Tense)
(2).    Past Simple (Tense), Past Continuous (Tense), Past Perfect (Tense) and Past Perfect Continuous (Tense)
(3).    Future Simple (Tense), Future Continuous (Tense), Future Perfect (Tense) and Future Perfect Continuous (Tense)

Participles are forms of verbs often ending in -ing (present participle) or -ed (past participle). The present participle is a verb form used to make continuous tenses (present continuous, present perfect continuous, past continuous, past perfect continuous, future continuous, future perfect continuous). Also the present participle can be used to make some adjectives (e.g. the sleeping child, the crying baby, etc). On the other hand, the past participle is a verb form used to make passive voice (he was killed) or sometimes to form adjectives(e.g. A broken leg). The past participle is especially used to make perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect, future perfect).

My proposal is that you should learn the tenses by putting together one group of minor tenses one by one and practise construction of different sentences along those minor tenses as in the following examples:       

(1).SIMPLE TENSES                                
(a). I play football
(b). He works
(c). We do
(d). They have
(e). I drink water every day
(a). I played football
(b). He worked
(c). We did
(d). They had
(e). I drank water yesterday
(a). I shall play football
(b). He will work
(c). We shall do
(d). They will have
(e). I shall drink water tomorrow

(a). I am playing football
(b). He is working
(c). We are doing
(d). They are having
(e).I am drinking water now
(a). I was playing football
(b). He was working
(c). We were doing
(d). They were having
(e). I was drinking water two hours ago
(a). I shall be playing football
(b). He will be working
(c). We shall be doing
(d). They will be doing
(e). I shall be drinking water two hours from now

(a). I have played football
(b). He has worked
(c). We have done
(d). They have had
(e). I have drunk water already
(a). I had played football
(b). He had worked
(c). We had done
(d). They had had
(e). I had drunk water when she came to see me
(a). I shall have played football
(b). He will have worked
(c). We shall have done
(d). They will have had
(e). I shall have drunk water by 10 O'clock tomorrow.

(a). I have been playing football        
(b). He has been working
(c). We have been doing
(d). They have been having
(e). I have been drinking water  as medicine for two weeks now
(a). I had been playing football
(b). He had been working
(c). We had been doing
(d). They had been having
(e). I had been drinking water as medicine for two weeks when my body started swelling
 (a). I shall have been playing football
(b). He will have been working
(c). We will have been doing
(d). They shall have been having
(e). I shall have been drinking water for two weeks when they start exercising

In this chapter, I have included some simple English expressions that you can use for day to day interactions. Most of them are possibly familiar with you but just read them to see if you can learn something.

Talking About Time
It is very common for you or someone else to talk about time. The following are some examples of how you can talk about time.
1st Person: What is the time now? (Or What time is it [now]?).
2nd Person: It is three o’clock
     It is quarter to one
     It is quarter past one
     It is half past nine

Another way of asking about time is to specifically want to know what time somebody’s watch is indicating, such as:
1st Person: What time do you make it?
2nd Person: I make it six o’clock
     I make it half past seven
     I make it 4:30

Other Examples:
I will be going to church at 3.00 pm tomorrow.
I saw him at quarter past four.
You are supposed to start classes at 8.00 am every day

Talking About Days
You may wish to know names of the days of the week by asking in different ways.
1st Person: What is today?
2nd Person: Today is Thursday. Or
              Today is Monday (or Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday, Saturday or Sunday).
1st Person: Is today Friday?
2nd Person: Yes, today is Friday. Or
               No, today is Monday

Other examples:
She came here last Friday.
They are going to Mwanza next Wednesday.
I was born on a Saturday.

Talking About Dates
Sometimes you want to know a particular day by referring to its number.
1st Person:   What is today’s date?
2nd Person:    It is 30th of December 2013. Or
        Today is 18th of August, 2011
1st Person: Which date is it today?
2nd Person: The date is 20th of October 2015

Other examples:
He was born on 20th of November 1965.
She was employed on 11th of June this year.
Tanzania got her independence on 9th of December 1961.

Talking About Months
If you want to know about months, you may wish to say something like this:
1st Person: What month is this?
2nd Person: It is May. Or
                  This is January (or February, March, April, May, June, July, August,         September, October, November, December)

 Other examples:
That accident took place in February.
She died in March last year.
They are planning to visit Zanzibar in December.

Common Greetings
Common greetings reflecting time of the day are such as:
1st Person:     Good morning, Sir (Madam, Mr. Julius, etc.)
              Good afternoon
              Good    evening
2nd Person:    Good   morning, Sir (Madam, Mrs. Ally, etc.)
                      Good  afternoon
                      Good  evening
1st Person:     How are you?
2nd Person:    Fine, thank you
              I’ m not fine
2nd Person:     And you?
1st Person:      I’m fine, too
               I’m not fine.

It is a good thing to meet and make new friends in life. One way to start interacting with new people is by knowing their names and a little bit of information about them. To avoid scaring people by asking them their names before they know why you want to know them, is by telling them about yourself first. This will help them to be comfortable with you and thereby volunteer to tell you about themselves as well.

We will learn about the basic self-introduction. This has at least four (4) elements: Name, place of residence, occupation and hobby(or hobbies).

My name is ………………..……Juma (Name)
I live at …………………………Mwananyamala (Place of residence)
I’m a ……………………….…..student at CBE (Occupation)
I like ……………………….…..watching movies (Hobby)

Taking A Leave
After a reasonable period of visiting someone you definitely want to leave. The easiest way to leave is to use the same expressions we use for greeting( that is: Good morning, good afternoon and good evening). One may ask: How do I know someone is greeting me or leaving? The answer is simple. If someone says the expression at the beginning, then you know it is meant for greeting. But if it is repeated then you know it is meant to take leave. So you may say like this:
1st Person:  Good morning ( or good afternoon, good evening, good night).
2nd Person: O.K. Same to you.

Other examples:
You may also use the following expressions:
I think it is time for me to say good bye.
May I take a leave please?

Asking About Another Person's Health
There are times when you wish to ask someone about another person’s health status. You may use the following expressions for that purpose.
1st Person: How is your brother?
2nd Person:   He is fine
1st Person: How is your sister?
2nd Person:    She is okay

Expressing Likes and Dislikes
When you want to know somebody’s likes or dislikes or you want to indicate that you like or do not like something you may use the following expressions.

Structure of the dialogue may go ile this:
Do you like………
I like …………….ing.
No, I don’t like………

Question:  Do you like swimming?
Answer:    Yes, I like swimming (or simply: Yes I do)
                  No, I don’t like swimming (or simply: No, I don’t)
HAMIS: I like playing football. Do you like playing football?
STELLA: No, I don’t. I like singing. Do you like singing?
HAMIS:  No, I don’t like singing.
STELLA: I also like dancing. Do you like dancing?
HAMIS:  No, I don’t, but I like watching TV.
STELLA: I like watching TV too. Let’s go and watch TV together right now.

Introducing Others
The following examples show how you may wish to introduce people you know but who do not know each other.
ANNA: Mr. Juma, please meet my English teacher Mr. Khalid.
JUMA: Oh great! How do you do?
KHALID: How do you do?
Another example may go like this:
Suzy:     Hello Juma, May I introduce Mr. Kelvin. He is my English teacher.
Juma:     How do you do?
Kelvin:  How do you do?
Juma:     Suzy has told me a lot about you
Kelvin: Oh, dear – nothing terrible, I hope.
Juma:     Not at all, she is very happy about things she is learning.
Please do not confuse the expression “How do you do?” and “How are you doing?”
“How do you do” receives the same expression from the other person and it is used when strangers meet or when people who have not been together for a long time meet each other. On the other hand “How are you doing” is meant to know somebody’s progress on something such as their academic work or about their general welfare.
 1st Person: How are you doing, brother (or sister)? 
 2nd Person: I’m doing fine
          I’m not doing fine

Wishing Someone Special Blessings
There are events that may need your recognition and you can take such moments to convey your good feelings towards friends and relatives. Expressions appropriate for such events may include the following.

1st Person: Happy Sabbath!
2nd Person: Happy day!

Other examples:
1st Person: Congratulations for completing your O-level with flying colours!
2nd Person: Thank you!
1st Person: Happy Id el-Fitri!
2nd Person: May God bless you!
1st Person: Happy birthday to you!
2nd Person: Thank you!
1st Person: I wish you a happy Christmas.
2nd Person: Same to you!

Making Polite Requests
It is good to ask for something using respectful language that does not connote a command. Some expressions for making a polite requests include the following.

1st Person:  Please, may I go out?
2nd Person: Yes, certainly
           Yes, you may.
1st Person: Please may I come in?
2nd Person: Yes certainly
          Yes, you may
           No, I I’m sorry you can’t.

1st Person: Please can you help me?
2nd Person: Yes, certainly
                   Yes you can
                   No, I’m sorry I can’t

1st Person:     Please may I borrow your pencil (book, pen, stapler machine, file, marker pen, punching machine and laptop)?
2nd Person:    Yes, certainly
              No, I’m sorry you can’t.

Other examples for 1st Person:
Will you take a seat, Mr. Ahmed?
Will you sit here, please?
Will you hold it for me?
Will you wait a moment?
Will you help me?
Would you just wait a moment?
Would you mind waiting?
Would you hold it for me?
Would you wait a moment?
Would you help me?
Could you hold it for me?
Could you wait a moment?
Could you help me?

Response for 2nd Person:
Yes, of course.
 Not at all.

Making A Polite Request Using The Word “Mind”.
Request by the 1st Person:
Would you mind holding it for me?
Would you mind waiting a moment?
Would you mind helping me?

Response for 2nd Person:
Yes, of course.
 Not at all.

Some people confuse the meaning meant by the above statements. If someone says to you “would you mind helping me?” what he actually means is “I want you to help me, but will that disturb you?” So, to answer “Yes, of Course” would mean “I will be disturbed so I cannot help you” while to say “Not at all” would mean “No problem, I can help you. I will not be disturbed”.

Directing Someone
If you want to direct someone to a particular place you may use the following examples:
1st Person: Where is the nearest bank (post office, bus stop, club)?
2nd Person: There is one in the next street (opposite the station, at the crossroads, at the end of the road)

1st Person: How do I get there?
2nd Person: Go to the main road turn right, Cross the road and take the second turning on the left

1st person: How long does it take to get there?
2nd Person: About thirty minutes by car.
1st Person: How far is it from here?
2nd Person: About twenty kilometers

Instructing Someone To Carry Out An Activity
There are times when you may want to give short or long instructions for someone to do. You may choose to use the following examples:

Instruction For Making Campbell's Condensed Soup:
First, you have to empty the soup into a saucepan and stir. Then you have to add one full can of water, a little at a time, stirring constantly. Lastly, you have to heat the soup to boiling point, stirring occasionally.

Instructions For Making Tea:
First, you must boil some water in a kettle. Then, you should take the thermos to the kettle. Next, you should warm the thermos by pouring in a little boiling water and then empty it out. And then, you have to drop in two tea-bags. After that, you should pour on boiling water in the thermos from the kettle. Lastly, you must allow the water to stand for two to three minutes, then pour the tea in your cup ready for drinking.

In your academic work, there are times when you will need to summarize, take notes or make notes depending on the source that provides the information needed. This activity demands the disciplined use of your ears, eyes,hands and thinking capacity.

This is making a short statement (written or spoken) that gives the main points (information emphasis) about a text or speech without giving all the details.It is an activity involving a compact communication based on your understanding of the original ideas and which is presented in your own words (without presenting your own opinions) especially trying to keep the structure (or skeleton) of the original presentation intact. 

Simple guidelines about summary techniques include:
(1).After reading a section or a chapter try to pause and put what you have just read into your own words in brief.
(2). Do not present your own opinions but present the original ideas usingyour own language
(3).Go over the text again and check the correctness of your summary.
(4).If something important is missing then add it and if something you wrote seems to be wrong, correct it.
(5). Try to keep the structure or organization of the original presentation so that the ideas do not get mixed up.

Note Taking
If information is briefly recorded from a source of information such as from presentations in a meeting, an oral discussion, a lecture, a radio or a television broadcast that is called note taking. It is about you taking notes from another source- written source or spoken source. The source for note taking may be a book, journal, periodical, or a newspaper, a lecture or a radio presentation, meetings, seminars, et cetera. Note taking is an important skill for business employees as well as their managers because it is needed for summarizing information in a brief and yet clear format.

Some guidelines for note taking:
(1).Develop your own way of taking points quickly e.g.writing points using abbreviations and symbols you are comfortable with
(2). Be an active listener or reader
(3). Concentrate to make sure you benefit from the presentation or the text material.
(4).Do not write everything that is said or found in a text material but just pick the important points
(5).Leave enough space for expanding your notes (that is for note making) immediately after the presentation or after reading the relevant piece of writing

Note Making
This follows on from taking notes and happens when you review your notes and re-organize them in a way that makes sense to you leading to more obvious connections between the points. It is about making your own notes by expanding on the information or arranging information in the way suitable for your understanding, or perhaps integrating information from the notes you took from a lecture, from a friend's exercise book and from a book you read in order to get good notes for your own use. Some guidelines for note making include:
(1). Concentrate to make sure you benefit from your reading of the notes you took
(2). Make sure your notes are in your own words based on your understanding but without changing the original meaning of the text

The Importance Of Summarizing, Note Taking And Note Making
Note taking and note making have the following importance:
(1). They help people to develop skills of selecting important information from information which is not important
(2).They help people to remember and keep important information
(3).They help people to improve their study habits

All the English words, though thousands in number are categorized under eight types of words normally known as “parts of speech”. These eight types of words are classified according to the use or work that these words do in the sentences. For simplicity, I normally group these eight parts of speech into three (3) classes based on their relationships. However, do not take this grouping very seriously because it is just my personal approach.

The first group consists of Nouns, Pronouns and Adjectives. They centre on the nouns as their key leader. The second group consists of Verbs and Adverbs with the verbs as key leader. The last group consists of Conjunctions, Prepositions and Interjections with no key leader for they do not have a simple relationship among them.

Let us briefly discuss each of the eight parts of speech.

These are names of things, people, places, animals, et cetera. There are different kinds of nouns:
(a). Common – general names of creatures or objects such as lion, sword, soldier, shirt, et cetera.
(b). Proper –specific names of persons, places, et cetera such as Ali, Dar es Salaam, Africa. They are normally written beginning with capital letters.
(c). Collective – names that represent a collection or groups; that is, implying more than one thing such as team, crowd, bunch, et cetera.
(d). Abstract – names of some quality that cannot be seen or grasped such as pity, bravery, anger, et cetera
(d). Concrete –names of things that can be seen and grasped such as chair, car, house, et cetera
(e). Countable- names which refer to things which can be labeled as one, two, three, et cetera such as house, pen, children.
(f).Uncountable –names which cannot be labeled as one, two, three, et cetera such as water, sand, ink, sugar.

Singular and Plural
These nouns may come as one (singular) or many (plural). There are many ways how singulars change to plurals and this is not a simple thing to master. One has to take time learning how different names change from the singular to the plural( for example: lady-ladies, boy-boys, knife-knives, son-in-law, sons-in –law, penny-pence, child-children, foot-feet, sheep-sheep, deer-deer).Compound nouns ( which are formed by joining two nouns) also have singular and plural forms depending on the second word in the combination( for example: housewife-housewives, watchmaker-watchmakers, armchair-armchairs).

We can also look at the nouns from a gender perspective. Names which refer to males are called masculine (for example: father, king, cock) while names which refer to females are called feminine ( for example: mother, queen, hen). Names which can represent both males and females belong to common gender ( for example: teacher, cousin, baby, sheep) while names that do not refer to males or females form a neuter gender (for example: book, desk, house, football).

Nouns which show that something belongs to a certain name (possessive nouns) often use an apostrophe before an ‘s’ (for example: a king’s throne, a pupil’s book, a man’s shoe, children’s home, et cetera). For plural nouns which end naturally with an ‘s’ the apostrophe is placed in front of the “’s’ not before it (for example: kings’ thrones, pupils’ books)

Multiple Choice Questions On Nouns
Put a tick against the correct answer
(1). Here is……………….
    (a trouser, the trousers, a pair of trousers, a trousers)
(2). Diana has……………...
    (long hair, a long hair, long hairs, the long hairs)
(3). My class teacher’s table is made of………………….
    (a wood, woods, wood, the wood)
(4). On Sports’ Day the City Education Officer gave the pupils…………………
    (an advice, advices, a few advices, a piece of advice)  
(5). …………….have been made
    (The furnitures, Furniture, The pieces of furniture)
(6). A big …………………..of Egyptian soldiers fought a battle
    (group, crowd, army, audience)
(7). A woman who is about to be married is a…………………
    (spinster, bride, blue stocking, widow)
(8). ……………….is a very important to Egypt.
    (A Nile, The Nile, A part of Nile, Nile)
 (9)………………good news.
    (There are, Those are, This is, These are)
(10). Mr Juma has a big…………………of cattle on his farm.
    (herd, flock, pride, pack)

These are words which are used in place of a noun ( for example: ‘he’ for ‘Rashidi’) or a noun phrase(such as ‘he’ for ‘the  man’).Consider this sentence in which the nouns ‘Peter’ and ‘problem’ occur three times:
Though Peter tried to solve the problem, Peter could not do the problem and the teacher solved the problem for Peter.
Now read this revised sentence. The words in bracket represent pronouns:
Though Peter tried to solve the problem (he) could not do (it) and the teacher solved (it) for (him).

Demonstrative Pronouns
They are for showing something both in singular and plural. For example:
    (This) is my dog. (These) are my dogs. (That) is a pen.

Personal Pronouns
They represent people in singular and plural form. For example:
(I) am your teacher.(You) are my student. (You) are teaching (me). (They) will come to our class.

Possessive Pronouns
They show that something belongs to a person or another thing. For example:
This is my book. It is (mine).
That is his knife. It is (his).
These are our children. They are (ours).
That cat has a long tail. (Its) tail is black.

Multiple Choice Questions On Pronouns
Put a tick against the correct answer
(1)She is no friend of…………………….
    (mine, me, us, you)
(2). Let you and …………… friends.
    (I, myself, us, me)
(3). I rang…………….up this morning.
    (she, her, herself, me)
(4). He is your student because you are teaching……………….
    (he, himself, his, him)
(5). …………………..are in the same class.
    (Him and me, me and he, he and I, I and him)
(6). What is the name of …………………who came first?
    (he, him, hers, herself)
(7). They came to see………………….
    (I and she, I and her, me and her, me and she)
(8). ……………….gave a present to John
    (He and her, Him and she, He and she)
(9). Smith is polishing his shoes. He is polishing………………..
    (it, they, theirs, them)
(10). Mr. John and ……………came last night.
    (him, himself, he, me)

These are words which describe nouns. They give more information to the names so that we are clear about them as much as possible. So, a ‘crowd’ is more general in meaning than a ‘large crowd’. Examples of nouns with adjectives in bracket include: (tall) man, (good) student, (friendly) match, et cetera.
There are several kinds of Adjectives.

Proper Adjectives
Proper names can act as the basis for forming Proper Adjectives. For example:
Shakespeare: Hamlet is a (Shakespearean) play.
Paris: Charles is a (Parisian) painter.
Tanzania: Hamisi is (Tanzanian).
Russia: Pavlov is (Russian).
Zanzibar: Asha is (Zanzibari).

Possessive Adjectives
These are words which show that something or someone possesses a certain thing. For example:
(My) watch is new. (Our) watches are new.
That is (your) child. Those are (your) children.
This is (his) house. These are (their) houses.

Degrees of Comparing Adjectives
Adjectives can be compared in positive, comparative and superlative degrees. The positive degree is used when no comparison is made. The comparative degree is used when comparing two things. It is in comparing more than two things that we need to use a superlative degree of an adjective. For example:

Positive: tall, big, dear, expensive, good, much,
Comparative: taller, bigger, dearer, more expensive, better, more,       
Superlative: tallest, biggest, dearer, most expensive, best, most

Positive: Charles is tall
Comparative: Peter is taller than Charles
Superlative: William is the tallest of the three boys.

The Superlative takes ‘the’ hence ‘the tallest boy’, ‘the longest river’, ‘the most expensive car’, et cetera.

‘A’, ‘an’ and ‘the’ are little words that are often placed before a noun and in a way they act as adjectives because they modify the meaning of the noun. A and An mean ‘one’ and hence are used for singular nouns. If the sound of the singular noun begins with a vowel sound (a, e, i, o, u), An is used (an owl, an orange, an hour, et cetera).  If the sound is a consonant (b, k, d, et cetera), A is used ( a pen, a youth, a uniform, et cetera).

Because A and An are used to refer to general things, they are called “indefinite articles” because they do not refer to something specific between the speaker and the hearer. On the other hand, ‘the’ is called a ‘definite article” because it refers to things that are definite, clear and known to the people communicating. To master the use of ‘the’ you have to study more about its many rules and exceptions.
Examples with ‘the’:
(1). For definite things
    (The) man waiting at (the) bus stop is my uncle.
    (The) book we bought yesterday is here.

(2). For a whole class of things
    (The) cow is a useful animal.
(3). For certain geographical names and countries
    (The) Nile. (The) Indian Ocean. (The) Congo. (The) United States of America
(4). For plural meaning
    (The) rich should help. (The) poor have nothing to enjoy.
Zero Article
You have probably noticed that there are occassions when a noun or a noun phrase is not  preceded by any article. We refer to this as Zero Article (o ), meaning that there is no article used. Read the following examples to learn situations where you do not need to use an article before a noun:
(1). To talk about plural and uncountable nouns or when talking about things in general:
I'm terrified of heights
I'm into drum and bass.
I hate cheese.
(2). Before countries, towns, streets, languages and single mountains:
I'm from China
I've climbed Mount Everest.
She speaks French.
(3). Before some places and with some forms of transport:

I live at home with my parents.
I came here by car.
He goes to work by bus.
(4). In exclamations with what + uncountable noun:
What beautiful weather!
What loud music!
What disgusting food!

Multiple Choice Questions On Adjectives
Put a tick against the correct answer
(1). ……………pupils always act as they are told to do
    (careless, shy, obedient, unintelligent)
(2). Both exercises are difficult but the first is the ……………..of the two.
    (very difficult, difficult enough, more difficult, easy)
(3). Suzan chose the pastries which looked the……………………
    (salty, sweet, sweeter, sweetest)
(4). One shilling is the ……………..charge for this film.
    (little, a little, very little, least)
(5). There are two roads leading to the village, the lower road being the ………….one.
    (narrow, broadest, narrower, very broad)
(6). Travelling by road is……………than flying by air.
    (more cheaper, cheap, cheaper, the cheapest)
(7). I have done………… this term than the previous
    (neat, the neatest, most neat, neater)
(8). This house is…………… of the two.
    (the best, the worst, very good, the better)
(9). Pamela is……………reader in the class.
    (worse, the worse, the worst, bad)
(10). Kikwete’s………… is in business.
    (older, elder, oldest, more elder)

These are words which show physical or mental actions. In other words they are ‘doing’ words (ask, kick, pass, sing, run, read, et cetera).These action words are used to give information about past, present and future events.

Regular and Irregular Verbs
Sometimes verbs can be grouped into regular and irregular verbs.
Regular verbs are those verbs which show a systematic pattern (by adding –d, -ed or -ied) when forming a simple past tense. Examples of regular verbs with their simple past in bracket include: ask (asked), kick (kicked), pass (passed), report (reported), try (tried), bury (buried), build (built), et cetera.

Irregular verbs do not have a simple pattern when changed into simple past tense. They may not change their shape or sometimes look like they are different words. Examples of irregular verbs with their simple past in bracket are such as: go (went), put (put), shut (shut), lie (lay), bleed (bled), break (broke), meet (met), draw (drew), bring (brought), sing (sang), read (read), run (ran), et cetera.

Transitive And Intransitive Verbs
Transitive verbs are verbs which take an object; they cannot stand alone without an object for it. If you say ‘people keep” the hearer will ask ‘people keep what?’. There is a feeling that the verb ‘keep’ needs something to complete its meaning. So to make it complete you may wish to add an object and get something like ‘people keep animals’. You can easily find an object of the sentence by asking ‘who’ or ‘what’ about the verb. Examples of transitive verbs with suggested objects in bracket include: win (a prize), break(a window), cut down(a tree), see(an elephant), catch(a thief), kill(a man), et cetera.

Because transitive verbs carry objects they can be used in constructing passive voice statements. Examples of active sentences with their passive sentences in bracket are such as: People keep animals (Animals are kept by people), He killed a man (The man was killed by him), The boys won the prize (The prize was won by the boys), et cetera.

An intransitive verb does not take an object and therefore cannot be used to construct passive sentences. Some examples of intransitive verbs include: go, sleep, cry, shine, et cetera. These verbs are complete in meaning by themselves. Nobody will be surprised if you said ‘the baby cried’. The verb ‘cry’ does not need an object.

However, there are verbs which can be used both transitively and intransitively depending on the nature of the sentence-whether it can or cannot carry an object. Take for example a verb ‘open’. You may say ‘the door opened’ (intransitively) or ‘the teacher opened the door’ (transitively).

Main And Helping Verbs
In a verb phrase such as ‘I am going’ you have the word ‘going’ as the main verb and the word ‘am’ as a helping verb. The word ‘am’ is helping to complete the meaning of the verb ‘going’, whether we should take it in the past or present or future, et cetera. The ordinary (main) verbs are such as jump, kill, eat, swim. The list of helping (auxiliary) verbs includes these: be, have, do, can, may, must, shall, will, need, dare, used.

Multiple Questions On Verbs
Put a tick against the correct answer
1.An experienced surgeon will…………..the operation
     (make, construct, perform, produce)
2.The headmaster did not…………….me leave to stay absent from school.
    (permit, admit, favour, grant
3. We asked him to........... his doctor since he was ill.
(consult, advise, instruct, recommend)
4.The detectives from Scotland Yard arrived to............the crime.
(explore, seek, investigate, pursue)
5.The city magistrate will.............sentence on the accused tomorrow.
(say, tell, speak, pronounce)
6.Such an insult cannot anybody.
(bore, born, borne, bared)
7.This exercise book has...................on the floor for a week.
(laid, lain, lied, lay)
8.The poster was...................on the wall.
(stroke, struck, stricken, stuck)
9.Many the storm.
(fallen, felled, fell, filled)
10.The Assistant Minister for Education.......................the school in our village.
(founded, found, pounded, laid)

These are words which tell ‘how’, ‘where’ and ‘when’ an action is done. Some of the different kinds of adverbs are such as those of MANNER (fast, hard, carefully, brightly, cheerfully, faithfully, et cetera), PLACE (near, here, there, everywhere, anywhere, far, under, above, up, et cetera), TIME (to-day, yesterday, early, immediately, now, soon, still, then, et cetera) and FREQUENCY (often, repeatedly, seldom, never, twice, always, occasionally, sometimes,  et cetera).Examples of some sentences with adverbs in bracket include: I opened the door (immediately). Juma has (always) stood (first) (in the class).Ana did the questions (easily).Alice dances (well).The teacher left the room (hurriedly).

Multiple Choice Questions On Adverbs
Put a tick against the correct answer
1.The pupils protested…………….against their class monitor.
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
2.Carol answered every question………………
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
3.The patient sat……………… the armchair.
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
4.On receiving the message the doctor went to the hospital………………
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
5.The small pox spread…………… all parts of the city.
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
6.The wood carvers’ carvings were done……………………
(correctly, angrily, immediately, skillfully, rapidly, comfortably)
7. Children should speak……………….to their elders.
(rudely, angrily, politely, loudly)
8.The naughty boy was punished……………….
(generously, kindly, humbly, severely)
9.John started school……………
(in 1998, to 1998, at 1998, on 1998)
10.Khamis went………………………
(at the station, on the station, to the station, the station).

These are words which show relationships between nouns, or pronouns and other words (such as verbs) in a sentence. Prepositions are normally placed before nouns and pronouns but they can also come at the end of the sentence. Mastering the use of prepositions requires some effort.

You should also note that many words used as prepositions can also be used as conjunctions and adverbs. Some of the prepositions in common use include the following: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, for, from, in, into, near, of, on, opposite, over, since, through, till, to, towards, under, until, up, upon, with, within, without. Examples of sentences with prepositions in bracket include: They succeeded (in) escaping.  I showed the map (to) Bill. I wash my hands (with) soap. (To) whom were you talking? Whom were you talking (to)?
Let us look at some types of prepositions.

Prepositions of Time and Date
These include: at, on, by, before, in. Examples of prepositions of time and date include the following: at six, at midnight, at 4.30, at the age of sixteen (or at sixteen), on Monday, on 4 August, On Christmas day, On Maulid, at night, at Christmas or at Easter (referring to the period of Christmas or Easter not the day only).

Prepositions Of Travel, Movement, Place And Direction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
These include: from, to, at, in, by, on, into, onto, off, out, out of. Examples: They flew (from) Paris to London. When are you coming back (to) Tanzania? They arrived (in) Spain. I arrived (at) the hotel. We got (off) a public vehicle. We went (via) Kariakoo. They went home (by) bus. There is a bridge (over) the river. They went (to) the market to buy some things.
Prepositions Used With Some Adjectives And Verbs
Some adjectives and verbs can be followed by certain prepositions and it is important to learn how they are used in a sentence. Look at this short list:
Interested in, anxious for or anxious about, confident of, capable of, bad at or bad for, fond of, good at or good for, suspicious of, tired of, used to, pleased with, accuse somebody of, apologize(to somebody) for, believe in, occur to, punish(somebody) for, hope for, consist of, beware of, persist in, insist on, laugh at, smile at, look for, look at, et cetera.

Multiple Choice Questions On Prepositions
Put a tick against the correct answer
1. Let us look………………….picture.
(in, at, on, of)
2. A fire broke……………….near here yesterday.
(into, down, out, up)
3.He was accused…………….robbery.
(with, of, in, for)
4.Pour this water…………the tank.
(in, into, on, to)
5.Tom fell as he was getting…………..his bicycle.
(on, up, in, for)
6.Mrs. Pinto was disappointed…………her daughter.
(with, in, at, about)
7.Why is that man staring………….us?
(at, on, to, after)
8. He is not interested…………….anything but cricket.
(at, with, on, in)
9.The match ended……………a victory for our school.
(for, at, to, in)
10.The teacher was angry…………..his pupils.
(at, with, on, to)

These are words which connect or join words or groups of words. Some of the most commonly used conjunctions include the following: and, but, so, either…or….., neither..…nor…..., before, after, when, because, until, unless, till, as, if, while. Examples of sentences with conjunctions in bracket are such as:
    Juma (and) Ali went to school.
    John is honest (but) poor.
    William and Steven arrived (before) Mary.
    (Neither) John (nor) Jane is present today.
    (Both) Diana (and) Cesilia are students of this college.
    This is the car (that) Jackson bought last month.
    The boy (who) works in the post office is my brother.

The types of conjunctions are as follows:

Coordinating Conjunctions
They are for joining pairs of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, phrases and clauses. They include: and, but, both………and, or, either…….or………,neither…..nor, not only……….but also, et cetera. Examples of sentences with coordinating conjunctions in bracket include: He is small (but) strong.  He can (neither) read (nor) write. Ring Tom (or) Bill. (Not only) men (but also) women were chosen.

Subordinating Conjunctions
They introduce subordinate clauses. They include: if, that, though, although, unless, when, et cetera. Examples of sentences with subordinating conjunctions in bracket are such as: He had no qualifications; (nevertheless) he got the job. He got the job (although) he had no qualifications. (Despite) the severe weather conditions all the cars completed the course. (As) I left the house I remembered the key.

Multiple Choice Questions on Conjunctions
Put a tick against the correct answer
1.He was very ill;…………………..we called in the doctor.
(and, but, so)
2.Sheila is clever……………….she is not friendly.
(so, because, but)
3. It is very late………….we can still catch the last train.
(but, so, and)
4.He is honest…………….he is stupid.
(so, because, although)
5.I am pleased with this book…………..the principal gave to me.
(who, whom, which)
6.Chinua Achebe………….novels are known all over Africa was born in Nigeria.
(which, whose, whom)
7. Tomorrow there will be neither snow……………rain.
(either, or, nor)
8. You can go there………………….by coach or by rail.
(neither, nor, either)
9. You will not succeed ………… do not work hard.
(unless, so, if)
10. In the evening…………..the sun is low, the birds return to their nests.
(so, when, unless)

 These are words used to express strong feelings or emotions to show attention, concern, joy, relief, surprise, et cetera. An interjection is always followed by an exclamation mark (!). Some of the interjections (exclamations) include: alas! Hi! Indeed! Oh! Hurrah! Hush! Hello!
There are several types of interjections.

Interjections Of Surprise And Joy
Oh dear! What are you doing now?
Hurrah! Our team has won the match.
Ha! They have passed their O-level examinations.

Interjections Of Pity And Concern
Alas! Martha is dead.
Hark! The inspector is coming to arrest us.
Hush! Don’t make a noise.

Interjections of Attention And Love
Hello! When did you come?
Hi! You are warmly welcome.

Questions On Interjections
Pick out the interjections and say what feeling is expressed by each
1.Good gracious! I shall be late for school.
2.Hurrah! Our team has won.
3. Oh dear! My pet is badly hurt.
4. Hush! You will wake the patient.
5. Bravo! You have all done well in your examination.
6. At last! The work is over.

Sentences are groups of words having complete meanings. That means one sentence (written or spoken) must make a complete sense.

Sentences are generally classified according to their structure (how they are made,built or constructed) or their purpose (their usage or what function they perform). In this course we will focus on the classification of the sentence based on its function or usage aspect.

So, based on the function, a sentence expresses a fact or an opinion, a question, a command or a request, an exclamation or a desire for something.  When written, a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!)

Look at these sentences and ask yourself which function they are performing:
    (You) Come.
    (You) Call the doctor.
    I am a student.
    I went to Kariakoo yesterday.
    Where are you going?
    Are you a footballer?
    How pretty she looks!
    What a fine day it is!

Very briefly, the following are types of sentences according to their function or usage.

(i). Declarative/ Assertive Sentence: It is a sentence which simply affirms or denies something. In other words, it is a straight statement.
e.g. Juma has taken tea.
      Juma has not taken tea.

(ii). Interrogative Sentence: It is a sentence which inquires about something. It asks a question.
e.g. How old are you?
      Will you buy that knife?

(iii). Imperative Sentence: It is a sentence which contains some command or prohibition or request or advice.
e.g. Polish my shoes (command)
      Do not read so fast (prohibition)
      Please, help me (request)

(iv). Exclamatory Sentence: It is a sentence which expresses some feeling of the mind.
e.g. Hurrah! My father has come.
       Alas! I am undone.
      What a beautiful bird it is!

(v). Optative Sentence: It is a sentence that expresses some wish, hope or desire.
e.g. May God bless you with a son.
      Would that I were a King!
      Long live the President!
      May you have a long and happy life together.
     May God have mercy on them.

Among the four language skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing), listening is the most important language skill for both management and workers and yet, it is sad to say listening is the most neglected skill as well as the least understood skill.  Perceptive listening needs learning and practice.  To become an effective manager you need to listen carefully to your subordinates, listen to their problems, successes, suggestions (and even their grapevines)!  As a student now and later as a worker you need to listen carefully to your fellow students, lecturers, workers, leaders and customers.

The Difference Between Hearing And Listening 
In the study of Communication Skills, we distinguish between hearing and listening.

(a).Listening is an attempt to receive sound waves into our ears with a purpose of carrying out a specific task (such as following certain instructions, giving specific information, taking notes, etc).
(b).Listening is active-you do something about the listening process 
(c).It involves effort to understand the message.
(d).Listening describes a skill which we have to learn and practice.
(e). Implies a need to use the message

(a).Hearing is an automatic process of receiving sound waves provided our ears are functioning properly (whether we recognize them or not)
(b). Hearing is passive -you have no involvement
(c).Hearing does not involve effort to understand the message.
(d).Hearing is an unlearned process occurring naturally without conscious effort on our part.
(d). Has no intention of using the message

Advantages Of Good Listening
(1).Helps to obtain correct and complete information easily
(2).Helps to understand root of issues
(3).Helps solve problems easily because it is easy to understand people
(4).Builds good relations/relaxed atmosphere between communicators
(5).Helps to identify sensitive issues before they grow
(6).Helps to have relevant decision making

Disadvantages Of Poor Listening
(1).Likely to pick inaccurate and incomplete information
(2).Failure to understand the root of an issue
(3).Difficult to solve people' s problems
(4).Discourages the speaker and destroys relations
(5).Can mislead in decision making
Active Listening
We tend to think of listening as a passive activity.  However, when we add the word active it implies participation and caring by the listener.  Active listening is the kind of listening in which the listener cares about the speaker’s emotions and participates in helping that speaker to express his deepest feelings freely.  The listener does not just keep quiet but he does some things or actions to encourage the speaker to be more open.

To increase your active listening skills and become a good listener, the following guidelines can prove helpful:
(1).Concentrate on what a person is saying rather than on how he looks
(2).Repeat the key ideas to yourself
(3).Relate the speakers points to your environment and experience
(4).Maintain good eye contact – focus your full attention on the speaker and put down any distracters like newspapers, etc
(5).Sit and act attentively – for those minutes act as if nothing else matters in the world except the speaker you are listening to, raise your eyebrows, nod your head in agreement, smile or laugh when appropriate
(6).Do not interrupt when the other person is talking – allow him to  express his thoughts completely before giving your views
(7).Create a free and relaxed environment for the talker – be patient and encourage him to speak instead of putting him down. For example, say to him/her  “this sounds interesting, tell me more about it”
(8).Empathise with your speaker – try to see his problem through his eyes, try to experience the same feelings he is going through, put yourself in his/her situation so you can objectively assist him
(9).Control your emotions as you listen – if the speaker is angry do not add on top of this anger
(10).Show your interest practically by asking well-phrased questions and paraphrasing what s/he is speaking e.g “Did you say the supervisor insulted you in front of the customers..?”

Total Body Listening
This is an active listening behaviour in which you use every part of your body to show the speaker that you are listening. It makes the speaker feel special, valued and worthwhile. To be a good listener you have to learn and practice listening with your eyes, your head, your mouth, your hands and so on.
(1).Listening with your eyes. By looking at the speaker and not moving your eyes here and there across the room when the other person is talking to you shows you care about what that person is saying.
(2).Listening with your head. By nodding your head you can show you understand and that you are following up on what s/he is saying.
(3).Listening with your mouth. By smiling you can show you are enjoying the speaker’s words.
(4).Listening with your hands. By your thumbs-up you can mean agreement. By not playing with things in your hands while listening to somebody you will show them you are taking them serious.
(5).Listening with your body posture. By leaning forward toward the speaker you will be showing a sign of interest and involvement in what the speaker is saying.

You cannot avoid speaking before an audience as a student and especially in business contexts. Whether you like it or not, one day you will be asked to speak before an audience to present something to either your colleagues or to management.

Definition Of Oral Presentation
An oral presentation is a process of speaking to a person or a group of people in a structured environment for the purpose of informing, influencing or entertaining. An oral presentation gives you an opportunity to display your knowledge on a particular topic whether that topic is your own choice or whether it has been chosen for you.

Process Of Oral Presentation
The whole process of an oral presentation (such as a speech) has two major stages with several tasks to be undertaken.

Preparation Stage:
Careful planning is essential for a successful oral presentation. The better you prepare in advance the more confidence you will have on the stage. Preparing an effective oral presentation involves about seven essential considerations to keep in mind:
(a). Determining the purpose of your presentation. Is it informing, instructing, persuading or entertaining?
(b). Analysing the audience of your presentation. Are they fellow workers, bosses or a mixture? Are they familiar with you or are they perfect strangers?
(c). Choosing the main ideas of the presentation. What is the most important information? What should you include and what should you leave out?
(d).Researching your topic thoroughly. Is it about facts or fiction? What are the sources of your content material?
(e). Organising data and writing a draft of your presentation. Does the introduction give the background information and indicate the direction of your presentation? Does the body discuss your purpose clearly? Does your conclusion summarise and put the last emphasis on what you want your listeners to remember?
(f). Planning visual aids (if needed). When and how should you use them? Which visual aids will actually enhance visual quality and interpretation?
(g). Rehearsing the talk and revising where necessary. Act as if you are in front of a live audience and practice using all the important hints used for real speech delivery.

Delivery Stage
When making an Oral presentation it is important to think of information needs that your audience may wish to know and be sure to satisfy those needs in your presentation.

One good way to test whether your message is complete is to use the WH-questions (sometimes called “journalistic approach”). Check if your message answers: WHAT, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, WHY and HOW? as appropriate to the type of message you are going to present.

During your oral presentation remember the following suggestions:
Look around the room to your audience as you start;deliver your presentation with a positive attitude; believe you have prepared yourself thoroughly (to boost your confidence to an acceptable level); pay attention to the chairperson’s instructions; speak clearly and loudly (so listeners do not miss your words); pause between points to allow the points to sink into your listener’s minds; glance around on your audience (establish eye contact) to assess the reaction of your listeners (taking them as a group and not looking at them individually in their eyes as that may trigger fear inside of you); Use transitional phrases to lead your listeners from one section of your presentation to the other (e.g. let us now move to the next point….); avoid long sentences and unusual words; time yourself and finish your presentation within your allocated time; apply appropriate non-verbals to complement your spoken content; involve your audience and respond to your audience’s arguments and questions.

Prepare For A Question And Answer Session
Brief, prompt answers should be ready for the audience after your presentation. This means once you are through with your presentation it is good to provide a time for questions and and answers. Make sure you do not leave the question and answer session to chance, but prepare for it. Spend time preparing for questions that are likely to come from your listeners and have ready ready answers.

Some pieces of advice that will help you during the question and answer session include the following:
(1). Focus on the questioner- be an active listener, focus your attention on the questioner, pay attention to his/her body language, nod your head to acknowledge the question, repeat the question to confirm your understanding of the question and to ensure the entire audience has understood it, ask for clarification if unclear, etc
(2). Respond appropriately -Be sure to answer the question asked. Use the time you have to answer the question or otherwise offer to discuss it after your presentation. Be honest and do not ignore, laugh a question off or forget a question
(3). Maintain control – Establish a time limit for questions or  establish a question limit per person. Give as many audience members as possible a chance to participate and avoid allowing only one or two people to dominate unless there is an agreement from all.
(4). Be cool -Sometimes you may be asked tough questions. Answer the question the best you can, be honest and try not to show your feelings of embarassment, anger or frustration. Do not resort to insults. Break long complicated questions into manageable parts that you can answer simply.
(5). Encourage questions -listeners who are deadly quiet can be as uncomfortable as noisy, hostile audiences. You might ask them a question yourself “ Would you like to know more about......?” If someone in the audiences answers, then go ahead and explain.
(6).Conclude your presentation – When time is over stop the question and answer session. It is good to prepare the audience by interjecting words like “Our time is almost up. Let us have one more question”. Summarize the main idea of your presentation and thank people for their attention. Conclude the way you opened, by looking around the room and making eye contact. Then gather your notes and leave the stage, maintaining your confident demeanor you have had from the beginning.

Parts Of An Oral Presentation
The Oral presentation has three parts namely the beginning, the middle and the end. Plan out in advance what you will do in those three parts.
(a).The beginning. This is ideal for getting attention of your listeners. It can be done through a short story, a simple demonstration, previewing important issues in the presentation, et cetera. The aim is to arrest the attention of your listeners
(b).The middle. This is for making your point clear. Remember to do what is suggested in the delivery stage above.
(c).The end. This is for finishing with impact. This may be done in different ways such as by summarizing the main points of your presentation, by calling for an action from your listeners, et cetera.

Types Of Oral Presentations
There are generally two types of oral presentations:
(1).Planned presentation: planned speaking or presentation means the speaker was informed earlier on and had time to prepare for the presentation.
(2). Unplanned presentation: this is a presentation when the speaker did not know that he or she would speak as a result he does not have prior preparation. In this type of presentation the speaker organises his thoughts quickly as he speaks drawing on his experience of the subject matter.

Indeed all reading adds knowledge to the reader. However, people may choose to read text materials for one of two reasons, either for study or pleasure. As students you are supposed to know the academic reading in order to use the knowledge to meet your classroom requirements. After your studies, you will need to continue reading for your personal pleasure and  personal education to improve your work and life skills. Let us briefly discuss these  types of reading.

Reading For Study Purpose
This is reading for meeting academic requirements. It is serious reading meant for tackling a certain comprehension exercise.  You read in order to meet requirements for your assignments, tests, exams, et cetera. Reading for study (or academic) purposes demands that you read carefully so as to understand the material assigned to you in a particular passage and perhaps get prepared to answer related questions.
Of course, understanding depends on the language level you are in. Your language level will determine how you interpret some words and phrases in the reading material as well as understanding the use of some particular words and phrases. If you fail to understand some words or phrases in the passage try to guess the meanings of those words and phrases based on the context of the passage. Such intelligent guessing is important because no one will be able to understand all the words of a particular language during one’s lifetime. Actually, we do this intelligent guessing of the meanings of words and phrases all the time as we do not have time and opportunity to check the meanings of each word in a dictionary whenever we encounter it in our discussions or readings.  Of course, we have to check meanings in a dictionary if the words we do not know are key words (that is, important words carrying the meaning of the passage).

Practical Advice On How To Read For A Comprehension Exercise
This involves reading the passage and the questions twice alternatively  (R-PQPQ) as follows:
(1). Read the passage to get the general idea of that passage
(2). Read the questions to get the idea of the nature of the questions
(3). Read the passage again carefully trying to sense the answers to the questions you have just read
(4). Read the questions again while providing the answers from the passage

Types Of Study Reading Materials
The reading materials for study purposes may be divided into:-
(a).Essential reading:  Where the teacher is taking his material; often the text book s/he is using
(b).Recommended reading: to give a wider understanding and add on the class text book
(c).Optional reading: for reading further if time is available.

Reading For Personal Knowledge And Pleasure
The second type of reading is for personal education, knowledge and enjoyment.  It is light reading that has no test or exam but is guided by personal goals of increasing  one's personal knowledge or leisure. For such reading we select topics that interest us (as opposed to academic reading in which you are forced to read what you like and what you do not like). For example we might prefer:
(a).Science fiction
(b).Newspapers with certain philosophies e.g. sport, features, finance, etc
(c).Journals that relate to our profession because we want to be up to date in terms of trends and research.

Factors For Selecting Reading For Personal Knowledge and Pleasure
There are certain things that guide or determine why readers choose certain materials for reading for personal knowledge and enjoyment including the following:
(a). Language level (People choose to read materials that they can understand. The advice is to choose materials whose level is at your competence level or slightly above your level of competence to challenge yourself. So peruse the book before you borrow it to avoid taking a book far higher than your language level or too low).
(b). The author (you have read other books by him and liked him).
(c). The title (catching your eyes).
(d). Cover design (picture, et cetera).
(e). Book size (small or big).
(f). Recommendation by a friend who read a certain book (and you got interested to read it yourself)

Reading for personal knowledge and enjoyment is also important. Your career growth partly depends on how you will be continuously improving yourself through reading for personal education and self-edification.